Among the fruit and berry plants cultivated in our country, sea buckthorn attracts special attention. Its fruits contain a complex of biologically active substances: vitamin C (50-150 mg /%), P-active substances (50-100 mg /%), carotene (2.5 mg /%), vitamin K (0.8-1 , 2 mg /%), E (8-16 mg /%). B, B2, B9, coumarins (1 - 2.4 mg /%) and oil (3-6%), which is valued as an effective tool in the treatment of a number of diseases.
Sea buckthorn - dioecious, deciduous, wind-pollinated shrub or tree up to 5 m high. The flowers are dioecious, male (stamen) and female (pistil), located on different plants.
In the areas of the Central Non-Black Earth Region, sea buckthorn begins to bloom depending on weather conditions from May 3 to 18. Male plants begin to bloom one to three days earlier than female plants.
Sea buckthorn enters the fruiting period in the fourth or fifth year. The beginning of fruit ripening may occur depending on weather conditions from July 26 to August 24.
The average yield from the bush in wild-growing sea-buckthorn is about 4 kg, in the varieties of selection of the Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia named after M. A, Lisavenko - 16 kg, the maximum - 26 kg. The mass of the fetus is from 0.2 to 0.85 g.
The main part of the roots lies in the soil layer up to 60 cm. On skeletal roots located near the soil surface, root suckers are formed, as well as nodules, in which nitrogen is fixed from the air.
Sea buckthorn is a hardy crop. It successfully tolerates frosts up to -50 ° С. However, in separate winters with thaws and strong daily temperature fluctuations, as well as in strong winds, branches dry out and flower buds freeze, primarily in male plants.
The best soils for sea buckthorn are sand and pebble with silty sediments, as well as light gray forest and meadow chernozem soils of light mechanical composition. On soils of heavy mechanical composition, sea buckthorn weakly grows and does not bear fruit well. Waterlogged, flooded areas are not at all suitable for her.
The best varieties of sea buckthorn are Dar Katun, Golden cob, Oilseed.
- Gift of Katun. The average weight of the berries is 0.4 g. The fruits are light orange, large. The taste is moderately sour, without bitterness. Productivity at six to seven years of age from 14 to 16.7 kg per bush. The berries ripen in late August, contain sugars - 5.3%, acids - 1.66%, tannins - 0.042%, oils - 6.89%, vitamin C - 62 mg /%, carotene - more than 3 mg /%.
- Golden ear. The average weight of the berries is 0.4 g. The fruits are oval, light orange. Productivity at five to six years of age from 15.2 to 16.4 kg per bush. The berries ripen in early September, contain sugars - 4.76%, acids - 1.45%, tannins - 0.059%, oils - 7.4% vitamin C - 66 mg /%, carotene - 2 mg ’%.
- Oilseed. The average weight of berries is 0.37 g. The fruits are brown-red. The yield at the age of four is 4.7 kg per bush. The berries ripen in late August, contain sugars - 4%, acids - 1.46%, tannins - 0.059%, oils - 5.8%, vitamin C - 64 mg%, carotene - 7.6 mg /%.
Soil preparation for planting begins with the introduction of organic (from 100 to 150 kg / 10 m2 of peat or humus) and 600-800 g / 1O m2 of phosphorus fertilizers. Instead of organic fertilizers, you can use mown green mass (lupine, mustard, phacelia). Acidic soils must be liming. The liming validity period coincides with the productivity of the sea buckthorn exploitation period and is 10-12 years.
Landing. In the Central Non-Black Earth Region, sea buckthorn is planted in spring or autumn according to the 4 × 2 m pattern. Pits are dug up to 40 cm deep and 30 to 60 cm wide. The root neck of seedlings can be buried up to 7-10 cm on sandy-pebble soils with silty sediments, on others soils - no more than 3-5 cm. In the case of deep planting, the aerial part and the root system will develop poorly. For planting, only high-quality, preferably two-year-old, planting material is used. The root system of a seedling should have at least three branches 30–40 cm long, the aerial part — 1 or 2 correctly spaced shoots 50–60 cm high. Before planting, the roots are dipped in a soil mash.
For normal pollination of female plants on the site should be planted 10% of male plants of their total number.
Pruning Sea-buckthorn consists in the annual removal of dried, frozen, damaged branches. In seven to ten-year-old plants, anti-aging pruning is performed.
Pest and Disease Control carried out as follows. In the fight against sea buckthorn green aphids that damage young shoots and leaves, plants are treated with 0.2-0.3% karbofos.
In the fight against endomycosis affecting the berries, apply nitrafen (3.0% of the drug) before budding, as well as collecting and burning the affected berries and branches.
In the fight against fungal diseases that damage all parts of the plant, it is recommended to cut and burn damaged branches or uproot plants.