Barberry or grow candy!
The ancient Babylonians and Hindus knew about barberry. The inscriptions on clay tablets 650 years BC mention the berries of barberry as a means of cleansing the blood. Barberry juice replaces lemon juice. Use it as a valuable vitamin remedy. A decoction of the root helps with pneumonia, cough, fever, lowers body temperature, quenches thirst. Berries stimulate appetite, strengthen the stomach, lower blood pressure, strengthen the heart muscle, improve blood circulation.
BarberryLatin - Berberis.
A genus of shrubs from the Barberry family. It is characterized by a 6-leaf cup, the same nimbus, with two glands in each petal, 6 stamens, a sessile, capitate stigma and a 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-seed berry.
The most common species is Barberry ordinary (Berberis vulgaris L.), a branched shrub with tripartite spines, in the corners of which there are shortened branches with tufts of obovate, ciliated fine-toothed leaves with short petioles on the edges.
Light yellow, heavy-smelling flowers are collected in hanging brushes; stamens are sensitive to touch. It blooms in late spring. The berries are oblong, red.
It is bred in gardens and occasionally found between shrubs north to St. Petersburg, as well as in southern and central Europe, Crimea, the Caucasus, Persia, Eastern Siberia, North America.
Most of the barberries are very decorative and are used in single or group plantings, hedges, and undersized species - on rocky hills and in the form of borders.
The color of the leaves of varietal barberries is incredibly diverse and not only green. It can be yellow, purple, mottled (for example, green with bright white spots in the variety "Kelleris" or purple with white, pink and gray spots in the variety "Harlequin"), with a border (purple with a thin gold border in the variety "Golden Ring" ) Moreover, among barberries there are giants and dwarfs, pick a bush of any height from 30 centimeters to three meters is not difficult.
Barberries are good not only as decorative foliage plants, they still bloom unusually beautifully. Small flowers, similar to spherical bells, either individually or in inflorescences literally completely cover the branches from mid-May. Their color is usually yellow, sometimes orange with the inclusion of reddish hues. In hot weather, flowers exude a sweet, tart aroma. Each petal carries two nectaries, emitting clearly visible transparent drops that attract insects. Moreover, barberries bloom and bear fruit not only in the sun, but also in partial shade. Barberry - a beautiful honey plant. Along with linden, buckwheat, flower, there is barberry honey.
Plants well tolerate urban conditions. It is unpretentious to soil conditions, drought-resistant, does not tolerate stagnant moisture at all, develop better in the light, but also tolerate some shade.
In the garden, we pay attention not only to the color of the leaves and the height of the bush, its shape is very important. Often this is what matters most when designing landings. Dwarf barberries, as a rule, have a compact dense hemispherical crown shape. High barberries are most often spreading shrubs with drooping branches, although there is a very interesting group among them with erect, vertically arranged shoots, for example, green-leafed “Erecta” and purple-leafed “Red Pilar”. You yourself can come up with a barberry shape and size, achieving this haircut. They are cut perfectly, they make excellent figures, for example, spherical in shape. Do not be afraid to cut, this is a very interesting activity, and you can do it almost any time of the year.
The autumn color of barberries, especially the green leaf, is charming, its leaves turn orange-purple, and the purple-leaved barberries grow red and good in the fall, and yellow leaves remain practically unchanged in the fall. After the leaves fall, bushes adorn the red berries for a long time, until spring.. Birds do not eat them, although they are not poisonous.
Drums are undemanding to soils; they grow best in bright and sunny places. In the shade, the decorative-deciduous forms of barberry (colored, with spots and borders) lose their color. The more light and sun, the more bright the foliage will be.
Containerized plants with a closed root system tolerate transplanting well throughout the season. Plants with bare roots can be planted in early spring, before buds open, or in autumn, after the onset of leaf fall.
With a single planting of barberry, place it no closer than 1.5-2 m from other plants: in crowded places, the bush will lose proportions. If you want to make a hedge, with a tight planting - plant four plants per linear meter, with a rarefied plant - two. At the same time, it is more convenient to dig a whole trench, rather than single holes. With a single landing, a pit of 40x40x40 cm is enough.
It is important to properly prepare the substrate - both light and nutritious. Usually they add humus, peat, turf land, but in general, everything depends on the specific conditions of the site. Add lime or ash to acidic soil. If superphosphate is added, the plant will grow stronger and healthier and will be better able to tolerate winter.
In the second year after planting, the plant can be fed with complex fertilizers. He will also need regular weeding, cultivation and watering.
Sanitary pruning is the removal of old and diseased branches.
The unpretentiousness of barberries is amazing. They are absolutely undemanding to soils, they are not afraid of strong winds, they tolerate drought very well, they can not stand only icing. All of them are photophilous, but grow well in partial shade, although there are several features. In order to get a saturated color of purple leaves, grow them in full sun, in those bushes that grow in partial shade, green is clearly present in the purple color of the leaves.
There are very few yellow-leaved barberries. Everyone knows Thunberg’s barberry “Aurea”, cold yellow about a meter high. It burns in the sun, it requires a penumbra location. The relatively new yellow Bonanza Gold is not afraid of the sun, but it is taller.
Top dressing is given starting from the second year after planting. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied (20 - 30 g of urea per bucket of water). Then fertilize every 3 to 4 years. It is necessary to introduce complex fertilizers with microelements, for example, Kemir universal. Watered once a week. Frequent loosening and weeding are required. After planting, mulching is carried out. Pruning is the annual removal of weak, poorly developed shoots. Old bushes thin out in spring. When installing hedges, pruning is performed in the second year after planting, cutting from 1/2 to 2/3 of the aerial parts. Then, in subsequent years, pruning is done 2 times a year: in the first half of June and early August. Low-growing forms of barberry can not be cut, they are well suited for dividing the garden into zones.
Species and varieties
The barberry family is huge. But the most common are three species - Barberry ordinary, Thunberg and Ottawa.
Barberry ordinary (Berberis vulgaris). In the Moscow region, the barberry bushes are frost-resistant, drought-resistant, and undemanding to the soil. The three most interesting forms of barberry vulgaris are:
- Berberis vulgaris f. aureo-marginata - leaves with a golden border.
- Berberis vulgaris f. atropurpurea - leaves dark purple-violet, bush up to 2.5 m high.
- Berberis vulgaris f. alba-variegata - leaves with white spots and stripes.
There are forms with white and yellow fruits.
Barberry Thunberg (Berberis thunbergii) His homeland is the mountain slopes of China and Japan. It is a shrub up to one and a half meters tall with green leaves and arched-inclined shoots. Small hedges and borders are made from it, dividing the site into zones, decorative groups of plants with different colors of foliage are made, single plants are planted on a green lawn. Thunberg Barberry is perfect for the Japanese garden. It is especially beautiful in the fall, when the foliage is colored yellow, orange, red, or rather purple. Barberry Thunberg has many decorative forms and varieties:
- Berberis thunbergii f. atropurpurea - 1–1.5 m high, leaves are dark purple.
- Berberis thunbergii f. aurea - up to 1.5 m high, leaves bright yellow, golden.
- Berberis thunbergii ‘Red Chief‘- sprawling, leaves are dark purple.
- Berberis thunbergii ‘Red King’ - compact, leaves are dark red.
- Berberis thunbergii ‘Rose Glow’ - leaves are pink-red-brown, with white “splashes” and strokes.
Ottawa Barberry (Berberis ottawiensis). We rarely see this species, but such an elegant two-meter bush will decorate any garden. Ottawa inherited all the best from his parents - barberry Thunberg and barberry ordinary. In the fall, its dark pink-purple leaves become bright crimson and bright fruits that remain on the bushes for a long time look very impressive. Ottawa barberry is usually on sale in the following varieties:
- Berberis ottawiensis ‘Superba’ - tall (2.5–3 m) spreading bush with reddish leaves and yellow flowers with a red mark.
- Berberis ottawiensis ‘Auricoma’ - up to 2–2.5 m high with bright red leaves that turn orange in autumn.
- Berberis ottawiensis ‘Purpurea’ - bush up to 2 m high with leaves of deep dark purple color; common in Europe.
© Drew Avery
Pest and disease protection
Barberry aphid: leads to wrinkling and drying of the leaves. Against it, in the spring, spraying is carried out with a solution of laundry soap (300 g of soap per 10 l of water) or tobacco solution (0.5 kg of shag is brewed with 10 l of water with laundry soap dissolved in it).
Flower moth eats away the fruits. When creeping eggs appear, the plants are treated with decis (0.05 - 0.1%) or chlorophos (0.1 - 0.3%).
Powdery mildew: The causative agent of powdery mildew is barberry. This is a highly specialized parasite, i.e. it only affects barberries. The disease manifests itself in a white powdery coating on both the upper and lower sides of the leaves, as well as on the shoots and fruits. The plaque consists of mycelium and spores that constantly re-shoot young shoots and bushes. By autumn, small, black, fruit-shaped cleistothecia bodies are formed on the mycelium, in which the fungus persists until spring.
Apply spraying with a solution of colloidal sulfur (0.5%), a sulfur-jester mixture or sulfur-lime broth (the first time at the beginning of the blooming of leaves, then every 2-3 weeks). Heavily affected shoots and leaves are removed and burned.
Rust: when using barberries in rural areas, it should be borne in mind that a number of species (common barberry, Siberian barberry and several others) are an intermediate host of a rust fungus that affects cereals. For this reason, growing them near grain fields is unacceptable. In spring, bright orange spots appear on young leaves of the bushes on the upper side, and orange convex cushions of the etsia form on the lower side, in which a huge mass of spores ripens, spreading both to wild and cultivated cereals. With a strong development of the disease, severe drying out and decay of the leaves are possible.
Effectively apply spraying with 1 - 1.5% solution of colloidal sulfur or 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid (the first time after the leaves open, then twice every 20 days). Thunberg's barberry is not affected by rust.
Leaf spotting represented by several pathogen fungi. All of them have a narrow specialization. On the leaves, spots of various shapes and colors form, the leaves dry up and fall prematurely. At the same time, the decorativeness of the bushes is lost, biochemical processes are disturbed, the shoots mature poorly, as a result of which they can freeze in winter.
Use copper oxychloride (30–40 g per 10 l), 2 treatments, before and after flowering; as well as Abigapik (40-50 g per 10 l), - 2 treatments.
Wilting barberry manifested by withering leaves and drying of individual shoots initially on one side of the bush, gradually spreading to the entire plant. Brown sections of vessels are visible on the sections of branches. The causative agent is a fungus of the Fusarium genus, and the disease can rightly be called tracheomycotic wilting, since the infection from the soil enters the roots, causes decay, and then spreads to the shoots through the vessels.
Separately, it should be noted drying out shootsin which pathogen fungi (more than 14 species are described) develop both under the bark and on its surface. The bushes dry, the leaves fall and separate branches die, but this is not associated with damage to the vascular system, but is explained by the drying of the bark. In this case, timely pruning of diseased shoots can stop the further spread of the disease.
Barberry bacteriosis causes pseudomonas bacteria. These bacteria cause bacterial cancer with characteristic fissures, cancers and overgrown shoots. Initially, dark, watery, small (2–5 mm), angular spots form on leaves, petioles, and young shoots, which eventually acquire a dark purple color. Leaves of all ages are affected, and with a strong manifestation of bacteriosis, they quickly fall off. On the branches, the spots acquire an oblong shape, crack, bloats and brown spots are formed, but bacteriosis does not appear on the flowers and berries.
Winter preparations: Barberry of Thunberg "Aurea" in the first 2 - 3 years, like other varieties, is covered for the winter with spruce branches, dry leaves or peat.
© Tim Green aka atoach