All about dyukas - hybrids of cherries and cherries
Cherries and cherries are fruit crops of the same family. Accidental successful pollination of cherries and cherries gave rise to a new kind of fruit culture, which the people called cherry, cherries and other names that are difficult to pronounce. Our love of contractions did not fail this time either. From the name of the English variety of cherries, bred in England in the 17th century, and called the May Duke (May-Duke), in Russia the shortened name Duke was fixed, which means “Duke” in translation. Gardeners liked the culture, especially because the plants gained greater resistance to freezing temperatures and diseases of some fungal diseases.
Since 1926, the dukes began to develop the space of the USSR. And by the beginning of the 90s of the 20th century, more than 30 varieties and hybrids were added to the catalogs of dykes, advanced far beyond the Central Black Earth regions.
Where are dykes grown?
The southern regions and adjacent areas received magnificent, winter-hardy for these climatic conditions, varieties of dyukov: Excellent Venyaminova, Saratov baby, Melitopol joy. Ukrainians obtained a sort of duke for the southern regions with the very practical and easily remembered name "Miracle Cherry", which today still occupies a leading place in private gardens and summer cottages.
The work of breeders with insufficiently winter-hardy varieties of parental pairs made it possible to obtain a number of dykes capable of growing and forming high yields in the northern regions. So, the Krasa Severa variety, bred by I. Michurin, grows and bears fruit not only in his native Michurinsk, but also in Moscow, Leningrad regions, in Nizhny Novgorod. Dukes are successfully grown in the southern regions of the Central Black Earth Region, and in some areas of the Novosibirsk Region.
Dukes grow and bear fruit in Western Siberia (Ivanovna, Spartanka), in the middle lane and northern regions (Kormilitsa, Zhukovskaya, Ivanovna, Dorodnaya and others). In the Khabarovsk Territory, a collection of dykes of the following varieties was tested and recommended for cultivation: Excellent Velyaminova, Fesanna, Strong, In Memory of Vavilov, Mayak, Nadezhda, Zhukovskaya.
The most winter-hardy varieties (practically not suffering from spring-autumn air temperature drops with short-term frosts) were obtained by breeders from crossing American winter-hardy high-yielding varieties. Trees successfully tolerate frosts at -25 ... -35 ° C.
More information about the varietal variety of dykes can be found in the article "The best varieties of fruit crops for cold regions."
External characteristics of dykes
Dukes belong to stone fruits and are cherry-cherry hybrids. If we compare the dykes with their parents, then the “children”, taking an intermediate place, took from the parental pairs all the best, but still the vast majority of varieties were self-infertile. Due to the beauty of plentiful but empty flowering, dykes in the country are often used as a wonderful decorative culture.
Self-fertility of a hybrid culture is associated with the impact of weather conditions. Sudden changes in temperature, both unforeseen frosts and intense heat, adversely affect the physiological processes in the plant, which are responsible for the formation of pollen and egg cells. The number of normally developed, capable of pollinating duke flowers, may decrease to 1%, sometimes sexually mature flowers do not form at all. With normal development, only 3-5% of the flowers are literally hung with delicious large fruits with delicate pulp of different shades.
Cherry-cherry hybrids in the south and in regions with mild winters form powerful trees with a wide, branchy crown. Breeders obtained varieties of dyukes that freely bear fruit in the cold regions of the North and Siberia, but there it is more practical to grow them in bush form.
The hybrids themselves are more similar in appearance and quality to the cherry. By the density of leaf blades and their size, the leaves are more reminiscent of cherry. Long-leaved leaves, the location on the shoots is another. The color is deep green.
The central trunk of dykes and perennial shoots are smooth (under the cherry), the color of the bark is dark brown. Sometimes skeletal shoots are located at an acute angle to the central trunk.
Depending on the region and climatic conditions, flowering can be early and late. For example, in central Russia, dyukes bloom in the last decade of June, and in the south in May. The flowers are white or slightly pink in color, collected in bunchy inflorescences, which are located on annual growths.
Dukes belong to early crops and when selecting good pollinators in the third year they form the first (test) crop of fruits. At the end of flowering, dustless flowers fall. Formed fruits, on the contrary, are stored on branches for a long time and even improve their palatability.
The fruits of dyukes are unusually tasty. Imagine a large sweet cherry, whose dense sweet-grassy pulp has become more tender, has acquired a refining cherry aroma with a pleasant refreshing aftertaste.
Biological features of dykes
Dukes differ from parental pairs in self-infertility. Therefore, they cannot stand "loneliness." If you want to get annual crops, you need to plant dykes surrounded by cherries and cherries better than zoned varieties. For each other, dukes are weak pollinators. In the Central Black Earth and middle zone of Russia, where today dyuks quickly spread in private gardens, pollinators can use the self-fertile Lyubskaya cherry variety, as well as Molodezhnaya, Bulatnikovskaya varieties.
The best pollinators for dykes are still cherries, especially the variety Iput (ideal pollinator). When purchasing seedlings for the first time, be careful. Be sure to immediately buy a duke and pollinator. With a quality pollinator, more than 1/3 of normally developed flowers are pollinated annually. Trees are then literally strewn with fruits.
Dyukes are more winter-hardy than cherries, but inferior to cherries in frost resistance. Therefore, in the northern regions they are grown in the form of bushes, which allows you to hide the culture from winter cold.
Dukes have another valuable property. They are resistant to coccomycosis and moniliosis. These diseases in recent years have literally mowed most cherry orchards. Many varieties of dyukas are practically not affected by the cherry fly.
Agrotechnical features of growing dykes in the country
Choosing a place to land
Dyuko-cherry-cherry planting is best done in the form of separate spikes (i.e., small groves). And aesthetically, and for the organization of care, this option is most optimal. If 1-2 trees are purchased for a summer residence, then it is necessary to choose a place illuminated by the sun throughout the day (do not push plants into the shade), as well as protected from wind and drafts.
Dukes cannot tolerate wetlands, and therefore, for planting, it is necessary to use elevated places, with underground water below 2 meters from the soil surface.
Selection of planting material
In order not to be deceived by an unscrupulous seller, dyke seedlings need to be bought only at farms engaged in the reproduction and sale of planting garden material, or in specialized stores. Each seedling should have a label indicating the main parameters: age, variety name, desired pollinator and other data.
2 - 3-year-old duke seedling should have a straight stem, intact, well-developed root system. Roots with a transverse incision must be alive (white). The bark of the shoots of the duke and the trunk itself is evenly colored, without drips of gum and other damage. You can plant seedlings in spring and autumn, according to the recommendations.
The soil should have neutral acidity (pH = 7). If necessary, it is neutralized with lime, adding 0.8-1.0 kg of lime to one landing pit. If the soil is clayey, heavy, then before planting the soil from the pit is mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 1.
Dukes have a nice feature. They can't stand overfeeding. Therefore, in the preparation of planting pits, you do not need to get involved in compiling soil mixtures that are excessively enriched with mineral and organic fertilizers. And later on, on nutritious soil, it is better not to fertilize dykes. Overfed trees grow intensively, do not have time to prepare the wood for wintering (it does not ripen).
Unripe wood tolerates wintering much worse and can cause the death of the whole tree. With proper preparation of the duke for wintering from severe frosts, flower buds, individual shoots can freeze, but the tree as a whole, even at -35 ... -40 ° C, will remain.
Planting pits for dykes are placed after 4-5 meters so that the old trees do not obscure each other and are not intertwined with branches. 300–400 g of superphosphate, 250-300 g of potassium sulphate, 2-3 cups of ash are introduced into a landing pit. Up to 1 bucket of compost or humus is added to depleted soils. The components are mixed with the topsoil. After planting under a sapling, up to 2 buckets of water are poured. Until the root system is developed, seedlings of dykes are watered 2-3 times a month with a sufficient norm of water.
The culture is drought tolerant. Adult trees do not need special watering.
Top dressing of young seedlings is carried out 2 times per season. The first top dressing until the end of June is carried out with nitrogen fertilizers - no more than 15-20 g under the tree before watering and the second - in the fall with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, respectively 30 and 20 g under the tree.
When planting, it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is not deepened. The root neck of the duke seedling should be at the level of the soil. Its deepening hinders the development of culture.
After landing, the duke carry out the first pruning. The seedling is shortened to 60-70 cm. The central conductor should be 20-25 cm above the side branches. Lateral, well-developed, strong branches shorten by 1/3, weak cut into a ring.
The root system of dykes is so powerful that it is able to independently provide the tree that has entered into fruiting with the necessary amount of nutrients. By this time, top dressing and watering is minimized or stopped.
In winter, young trees protect against pests (hares, mice, etc.). In the northern regions, especially with unstable autumn and spring, young trees are sheltered from temperature extremes. It is more practical (as already noted) to form bush dykes in such areas.
Planting, basic care, pruning and propagation in dukes is practically no different from the parent (cherries and cherries).