Thuja - the tree of life
It is difficult to imagine that this fluffy and already familiar in the parks and sections of the tree is not found in the wild nature of our region. Thuja came to us from the southeastern part of Canada and the northern part of the United States several centuries ago. In natural conditions, in its homeland, the thuja grows up to 20 meters, in our latitudes it is more common to see it about 10 meters high.
Thuja is a coniferous plant from the Cypress family, which can be a tree or shrub with flat shoots. There are five types of thuja:
- Thuja western, or life tree (Thuja occidentalis);
- Thuja Sichuan, or Thuja chinese (Thuja sutchuenensis);
- Thuja Korean (Thuja koraiensis);
- Thuja japanese, or Thuja Standisha (Thuja standishii);
- Folded thuja, or Thuja giant (Thuja plicata).
All species of arborvitae are evergreen with a dense crown, and the needles well tolerate cold and air pollution. Therefore, they are ideal for landscaping cities in temperate latitudes. Thuja wood contains aromatic essential oils that give the plant a pleasant smell. In our cold latitudes, different varieties of western thuja grow well and tolerate winters.
Thuja western - evergreen conifer from the Cypress family (Cupressaceae), a genus of Thuja, found in nature in the eastern regions of North America.
Due to the large number of highly decorative artificially bred forms, winter hardiness, durability and resistance to urban conditions, the western thuja is very widespread in ornamental gardening across all continents in many climatic zones.
If you decide to plant thuja in the garden, then select a site where the sun will not be all day. Due to constant direct sunlight, the plant may become dehydrated or fall ill in the winter from frost. Soil is best suited with the addition of peat and sand. Without any problems, thuja will grow in any other soil - in a swamp, clay, sandy loam.
When planting thuja in groups, it is necessary to maintain the correct distance between trees, it can vary from 1 to 5 meters, namely, when planting a single-row hedge of 1 m, with a double-row hedge, up to 2 m, and when planting large species of thuja in the alley, 5 m. We should not forget that the trees will grow not only in height, but also in width. Planting depth - 60-80 cm. It is advisable to plant the thuja in the spring, although at any time of the year the thuja tolerates landing well with the correct actions of the gardener.
Tuyu is grown in air: in open ground or in a pot, in single and group plantings, in hedges, forest shelterbelts, if possible in a cool and humid microclimate. Typically, these plants are planted in a permanent place in November or March. They prefer deep and slightly moist, but well-drained soils.
For hedges, thuja is planted, observing a distance of 60-70 centimeters between plants. Growing thaw in pots or flower beds, use a substrate of peat and fruitful land with the addition of organic fertilizers in the amount of 30-50 grams per bucket of soil. From the second year of life, liquid fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is practiced.
Thuja can grow both in a sunny place and in partial shade, but in the complete shadow its crown thins. Any soil is suitable: peaty, clay, dry sandy loam, the main thing is that it be well permeable. On heavy, moist soils, drainage is made with a layer of 15–20 cm; pipes in trenches are laid in swamps.
When buying and replanting plants, make sure that the earthen lump around the roots of the thuja is preserved. Young plants tolerate transplanting more easily. Planting pits should be 60–80 cm deep - depending on the size of the earth lump, the height and diameter of the plant’s crown. They are covered with a mixture of turf or leafy soil, peat and sand (2: 1: 1) with the addition (during planting) of 50-100 g nitroammophoski for each adult plant. The root neck should be at ground level.
Planting plants in groups, between them withstand a distance of 3 to 5 m, focusing on the size of future trees. In the alleys of the thuja they usually plant 4 meters from one another.
They feed plants in the spring. Usually, complex fertilizers are used for this, for example, Kemiru-universal, at the rate of 50-60 g / m². If a full mineral fertilizer was applied during planting, the first top dressing is carried out only after two years.
The magnificent needles of thuja evaporate a lot of moisture, therefore, drying of the soil, including in autumn, should not be allowed. In the first month after planting, it is watered once a week (10-50 liters per seedling, depending on its size), in addition, the crown must be irrigated. Thanks to sprinkling, the dust is not just washed off: the stomata of the leaves open, the plant becomes easier to breathe and, accordingly, all physiological processes proceed more intensively.
During the growing season, the soil is loosened to a depth of 8–10 cm (the thuja has a superficial root system). Trunk circles are desirable to mulch - peat, wood chips, bark, compost. This will protect the roots from overheating and drying out in the summer and from freezing quickly in the winter.
The plants are sheltered for the first three to four years to avoid winter and spring sunburn. Adult thuja are quite winter-hardy. However, it is advisable to pull the twigs of tall trees slightly with twine so that their crowns do not break under the weight of wet snow.
Thuja can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively. Seed propagation is acceptable only for thuja species, but not forms and varieties (decorative qualities will be lost). Moreover, this is a laborious and long process: it takes three to five years to grow a seedling. Seeds must be freshly picked. They are subjected to natural stratification, leaving in the fall under snow.
In the spring they sow on ridges, deepening only 0.5 cm, lightly sprinkle with coniferous sawdust. Thuja seedlings are covered with shields from the sun, the soil is maintained in a loose and wet state. They are fed a weak solution of slurry (1:20).
Most western and its forms are propagated by lignified cuttings (using 2–3 year old shoots 25–40 cm long) and semi-lignified (growth of the current year 10–20 cm long, cut in June). Cuttings are cut off so that on the base of the shoot there remains a small piece of old wood - the “heel”. In this case, the cuttings root better.
They are treated with a heteroauxin solution and placed in a greenhouse. The soil is prepared from a mixture of river sand with peat and turf land (in a ratio of 1: 1: 1), disinfected with potassium permanganate. The depth of planting of the handle is from 1.5 to 2.5 cm.
In a greenhouse, it is very important to maintain high air humidity without waterlogging the substrate, so spraying is more desirable than watering. The rooted cuttings are aired and hardened. In November, they are insulated with leaves, sawdust or spruce spruce branches, and when frosts occur (-5 ..- 7 ° С) they are additionally covered with a film.
Diseases and pests of thuja
Dangerous pathogens cause diseases: fungi of the genus Fusarium, cytospore, Thomas and others. They hit the crowns, shoots, needles. Shute tui brown only damages the needles. To combat fungal diseases, Bordeaux is used or karotsid. Trees are cultivated, starting in spring, with an interval of two weeks, until they fully recover.
Of the pests, thuja aphids and thuja false shields are the most dangerous. The needles damaged by aphids turn yellow and fall. To get rid of it, the plant is sprayed several times with malathion, horn or decis. No less harm is done by the thuja false scutellum found on needles and branches. Before budding, the plants are sprayed with karbofos, at the end of June they are twice treated with actellik, horn or chlorophos (with an interval of one and a half to two weeks).
Thuja will perfectly decorate your garden! This beautiful coniferous tree, in addition, has a very pleasant smell!