How to speed up the preparation of high-quality compost, or the Benefits of EM-compost
Every year, plants take out a huge amount of nutrients from the soil. Our task is to return at least some of them to the earth in order to maintain fertility. One of the most affordable methods is compost. Being an organic fertilizer, it not only improves the nutritional composition of the soil, but also its structure, the habitat of beneficial biological organisms, and preserves its ecology. Do the compost with your own hands even the novice gardener. You just need to figure out how to arrange a compost heap, what can be put in it and how to speed up the processes in it.
What is compost?
Thinking about organizing compost heaps on your site, you need to understand right away - this is not just an ordered dump of food waste, twigs and weeds. This is a well-organized process in which several components take part at once, namely, organic matter, soil and microorganisms. And we can manage this process, providing conditions that improve their interaction.
Compost can be aerobic and anaerobic. The first is formed with the access of oxygen, the second, as the name implies, without it.
The fastest, and therefore the most commonly used option - with oxygen access - is aerobic. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that it is possible to prepare such compost in small portions, in relatively small containers, which, if necessary, are easy to move to another place. Due to high temperatures, pathogenic microbes die in aerobic compost. Due to the access of oxygen, it does not emit an unpleasant odor.
At the same time, the anaerobic method of composting waste has its significant advantages:
- in a compost heap you can put more organics;
- there are no special requirements for its composition;
- fermentation (decomposition) processes in such compost occur with the formation of mobile forms of nitrogen, which the plants absorb well.
However, both methods have their drawbacks. So, aerobic compost involves a one-time laying of plant residues, constant monitoring of humidity and temperature, regular mixing. Due to the accelerated decomposition of organics, it loses ammonia nitrogen.
Anaerobic compost is prepared for a long time - from 3 to 5 months. With earlier use, harmful microorganisms and weed seeds do not have time to burn in it. And although it can be used after 4 weeks, it is inconvenient to do this, because during this period the plant residues have not yet completely decomposed.
How to cook high-quality aerobic compost?
In order to prepare aerobic compost, first of all, it is necessary to prepare a container. It can be a barrel, a plastic box, a container of at least 200 liters.
Nitrogen-carbon balance is of great importance for the conversion of organics to compost. If there are not enough nitrogen-containing components, the decomposition processes will be slowed down or will stop altogether.
Therefore, the composition of the aerobic compost should include both green parts of plants rich in nitrogen (mowed grass specially collected for this nettle, freshly picked weeds), and plant residues rich in carbon (sawdust, straw, leaves fallen from trees, dried up residues of garden crops) . It is better that all this be crushed.
If chicken or cow dung, ash are available, you can add them to the container, but in small quantities.
Prepared components are laid in layers of 10-15 cm, which are sprinkled with a small layer of earth - 3-5 cm. Tamping is not used, preserving naturally obtained friability - this provides oxygen access to plant residues, which accelerates the fermentation process.
To improve, and hence accelerate decomposition, each layer is shed with a working solution of the Ekomik Urozhayny microbiological preparation - this is 100 g per 10 liters of water. Optimal compost heap moisture level: 50 - 60%.
Living microorganisms of the Ekomik Urozhayny biological product contribute to the active decomposition of soil organic matter, the accumulation of nutrients and mobile forms of macro- and microelements, and the supply of plants with essential nutrients. The structure of soil biota improves, accumulated phytopathogens are suppressed. The biological product starts the process of soil self-cleaning from residual pesticides.
The temperature of the compost during the period of overheating of organic residues with oxygen access rises to + 45 ... + 60 ° C for 15-20 days. This ensures the death of pathogenic microbes, helminth eggs, pest larvae, fungi and weed seeds. Therefore, the composted mass during this period must be periodically mixed in order to neutralize the outer layer of organic matter and to provide oxygen access to anaerobic bacteria located in the center of the organic mass. At the same time, care must be taken to keep it moist. When the temperature of the compost drops to + 20 ... +25 ° С, it must be shed again with the microbiological preparation “Ekomik Urozhayny”. And after 3-5 days, such compost can be used.
If there are a lot of organic residues, you can make such compost in the pile. To do this, it is necessary to arrange drainage at its base, providing greater access of oxygen to the decomposing mass. For its formation, branches, bark, large shavings are suitable. In this embodiment, the mixing of the compostable mass during combustion should be even more thorough. Since the organic storage system is open, it will have both cold and hot zones.
Aerobic compost can be used after a month of fermentation, however, it is considered fully ready after 1.5 - 2 months after laying organics in a container.
Rules for making anaerobic compost
For anaerobic composting, pits with a depth of about 50 cm are used. Any organic matter, in any proportions, is laid in them, the main thing is that it be crushed. Each layer of organic matter is from 15 to 20 cm thick, covers 3 to 5 cm of earth, is well compacted and spilled with the working solution of the Ekomik Urozhayny biological product. The total humidity of the substrate should be 50-60%.
The Ekomik Urozhayny biological product is a liquid containing live bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Bacillus, as well as a complex of biologically active substances and enzymes that can break down complex organic substances, including cellulose and fiber, making them available for absorption by plants.
After the pit is filled, the shoulder is covered with polyethylene, the edges of which are pressed tightly to the ground. The burning temperature in such compost is not high - approximately + 15 ... + 35 ° С, therefore, for complete ripening, it needs more time. And the longer the decomposition process takes place, the less pathogenic microflora in it, and the higher its nutritional value.
Under anaerobic conditions, high-quality compost is also obtained, and its high nitrogen content is considered a good difference.
Benefits of EM Compost
Composting of organic residues using the Ekomik Urozhayny biological product belongs to the category of EM compost. Such compost is obtained two to three times faster and several times higher in efficiency than usual. The output is a high-quality product that contains not only a wide range of nutrients so necessary for plants, but also an increased content of beneficial microorganisms that continue to work after fertilizing the soil.
You can fertilize with such compost any culture. To bring to the soil in the spring when preparing beds for planting seedlings or sowing seeds. In summer use as mulch. In the fall, fertilize the beds after harvesting the main crops. It perfectly improves the structure of the soil, retains moisture in it and gradually gives up nutrients, increasing its fertility.