The use of dahlias in landscaping. Part 2
- Part 1. The use of dahlias in landscaping.
- Part 2. The use of dahlias in landscaping.
Using dahlias for landscaping balconies, terraces, verandas
Dahlias are also widely used for landscaping balconies. To do this, you need to select varieties low and medium, early ripening, plentiful flowering, with bright, stable colors, for example, such as Zastava, Kapriz, Katenka. The same varieties are also suitable as tub crops for landscaping terraces and verandas.
For this purpose, divided root tubers or rooted cuttings in March - April are planted in pots, tubs, plastic containers with nutrient soil and set in a bright place in the room. Emerging shoots break out - leave one or two. Water the plants sparingly, preventing the earth from drying out. In sunny, frost-free weather, the plants are carried out onto a balcony, terrace or veranda, and at night or in cold weather they are cleaned in a frost-free room. Every 7-12 days, plants must be fed a half dose of a full mineral fertilizer, that is, 0.5 tablespoon per 10 liters of water. Boxes for growing dahlias on balconies should be durable, 30-40 cm high and 25-30 cm wide.
Blooming dahlias in the room, on the veranda or terrace, if desired, can be received very early, for example, for the May holidays, or rather late - for the November.
To obtain flowering plants, by May they use low and medium-high early-growing large-flowered varieties of dahlias that do not change the color of the inflorescence with a lack of light. To do this, small dahlia nodules obtained from late cuttings are first germinated in a warm and bright room at 16–18 ° C, and at the end of February or mid-March they are planted in 12-17 cm pots, tubs or boxes with garden soil.
To avoid stretching the plants for the first time they are kept at a temperature of no higher than 15 ° C in the brightest place, possibly illuminating them with fluorescent lamps. Of the few sprouts that appear, one of the strongest is left. After the development of the fourth pair of leaves, pinch the top. The temperature of the air where the plants are located is reduced to 12-15 ° C. At the first opportunity, plants are taken out to greenhouses or open ground, protecting them from frost. By the appointed time, the plants are blooming.
To obtain flowering plants by November, medium-sized and plentifully flowering large-flowered varieties are used. To do this, the May or June cuttings, transplanted into clay pots 12-17 cm, are dug in open ground to the very edges of the pots at a distance of 40x50 cm and immediately tied to stakes. Caring for such plants is common with all other dahlias. Before the onset of frost, pots with dahlias are brought into the greenhouse or onto the terrace. If the buds began to form earlier than necessary, then you should pinch them to delay flowering.
To prolong the flowering of dahlias in autumn, plants are often planted from the ground with a lump of earth in tubs or boxes, for three days they are kept shaded, and then placed in a warm room in a bright place. With this method, plants give inflorescences of less quality than specially grown in pots.
Sometimes flower lovers, in order to receive blooming dahlias in late autumn, immediately plant divided parts of root tubers or cuttings in tubs or deep boxes. Gradually, the plants accustom themselves to the open air, and in early June tubs with plants are taken out into the open ground. Regular fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is required, as for all dahlias grown in pots, crates and tubs.
In the fall, before frost, tubs are brought into a warm room. Dahlias bloom normally, inflorescences are of high quality.
The use of cut flowers in bouquets and compositions
Recently, dahlias are increasingly being used in cut form. For growing dahlias for cutting, varieties resistant to water with strong long peduncles are used. The whole cycle of growing dahlias for cutting is the same as for the decoration of plots.
Cut dahlias are a wonderful decoration of a living room and any production room. Three to five inflorescences on long straight peduncles with a sprig of asparagus or another plant look great in a ceramic vase. For such bouquets, pom-poms, spherical and nymphaeal dahlias, as well as some varieties of cactus shape, are best suited.
Despite the fact that dahlia inflorescences are cut and inferior to some other flower-decorative plants in resistance (for example, gladioli and lilies), in their shape and richness of colors they are one of the best components of bouquets and compositions. Therefore, these flowers are in great demand among the population.
In the art of flower arranging, a bouquet refers to several (usually 3-5 or more) cut flowers or inflorescences gathered together.
The number of flowers in a bouquet depends on their size and on what purpose it is intended for. For small bouquets (less than ten flowers), it is better to pick up an odd number of flowers 3-5-7 or 9 in order to avoid a symmetrical arrangement.
Before making a bouquet of flowers, decorative leaves, branches and ears are sorted previously by the length of the stem and color. Everyone who makes a bouquet should remember its proportions, the size of the vase and bouquet. The greater the height) of the vase exceeds its width, the higher the bouquet should be.
Flower vases should be of a simple form, preferably without an ornament, since the flowers themselves - the main beauty of the bouquet - do not need additional decorations. By the simplicity of its shape and color, the vase should emphasize and emphasize the beauty of the flowers. The so-called decorative vases, which themselves serve as decoration, are not suitable for bouquets.
Recently, asymmetric vases are often found. Asymmetry allows you to more freely place flowers, create a bouquet of a more dynamic pattern. For large bouquets vases with a wide top are suitable, tapering downwards. But the most convenient for arranging bouquets are flat, low vases (dishes, plates) made of ceramics, glass with special holders. Unlike bouquets in vases without holders, which always have more or less the same sheaf-like shape, bouquets with holders can easily be given any shape. There are two types of arrangement of flowers in a vase - natural and decorative. With a decorative arrangement, attention is drawn primarily to the external effect (this type is most often used by Japanese decorators). Such an arrangement is generally accepted less than natural, i.e., reminiscent of nature.
When arranging the bouquet, you need to try to arrange the flowers correctly in the vase. Straight stems should not cross, leaves with sharp ends should look forward. Flowers, leaves and branches should be in harmony in shape, height and color. It is necessary to determine the center of gravity of the bouquet so that its individual parts are balanced, find the central spot in the bouquet.
One of the best flower holders in flat vases is a holder with tattoos.
Dahlias look great in a low vase with a metal tattoo, if the color and shape of the vase emphasize the beauty of the dahlia and harmonize with the surroundings.
For the composition of the bouquet, it is better to take dahlias of one variety and, depending on the color of the inflorescence, decorate them with twigs, leaves of suitable plants, which, in cut form, retain their freshness for a long time, for example, fern nephrolepis, funky leaves, etc.
Depending on the purpose of the bouquet, it consists of three or more dahlias. Three to five pompom dahlia flowers in a small vase are enough to put on the desk. and for a ceremonial meeting or an anniversary evening you need at least 11-17 inflorescences on long pedicels, bright colors, beautifully placed in a low vase for a tattoo or in a decorative basket. For a solemn bouquet, dahlias are best taken in bright red color, and for a jubilee, a variety of colors of dahlias in bright cheerful colors is allowed.
To decorate the table, you can use individual inflorescences without pedicels. They are placed on the edge of the plate and placed near them are several leaves of dahlia or other plants.
Water is poured into the bottom of the plate. For this purpose, nymphaeal dahlias are especially suitable, for example, Juno, Poddubensky ditties, Pink diadem, Swan Lake, etc.
The festive table is decorated with low bouquets (15-20 cm) so that the interlocutors opposite can see each other. If the table is one side against the wall, you can put a tall bouquet. You need to pay attention to which vase to put the flowers in: a ceramic vase, of course, will not fit a delicate porcelain service, a ceremonial table, but it will be suitable for a table set for breakfast.
Ceramic vases will be the most suitable for displaying dahlias at flower shows. Dahlias are selected in good quality on long straight peduncles. Delivered in flat vases on tattoos, dahlias in the amount of 7-11 inflorescences, decorated with greenery, look very impressive. The impression of visitors to the flower exhibition is largely dependent on the composition of the stand with dahlias. We will name the main requirements for stands: a small number of exhibits (no more than 20–25), a diverse design of each vase or bouquet, selection and arrangement of bouquets according to a certain principle (by contrasting or harmonious combination of tones).
Do not overload the stand with other colors, no matter how beautiful they are. Decorative material should be modest, in a small amount. It is intended to emphasize the beauty of the exhibits.
At exhibitions and in living rooms, cut dahlias "stand in the water for three to seven days, depending on the variety, temperature and humidity, where they are located. In a cool room at a temperature of 3-5 ° C, dahlias stand in water for up to 9-12 days. A bouquet of dahlias placed ’in the sun or in a draft fades in 2-3 hours, so cut dahlias should be put in a cooler place, but not in the draft. Be sure to spray dahlias once or twice a day with water to prevent inflorescences from fading.
In addition to the above, there are several more conditions that must be adhered to so that dahlias retain their freshness longer.
The dahlia inflorescences for cutting are selected of medium size on long strong peduncles after the buds are fully opened, since in buds the buds, as a rule, do not bloom. On cut inflorescences, there should be no faded lower petal flowers.
It is best to cut dahlias in the morning or at the end of the day in dry weather over the internode with a sharp knife with a long oblique cut, for better passage of water into the peduncle. Cut flowers should immediately be put in water for the entire length of the flower head and, if possible, leave them in a cool dark place for several hours. If the cut dahlias need to be transported somewhere, then they should immediately be laid for transportation in two or three rows tightly one to the other.
The best containers for transportation are cardboard boxes - boxes of at least 60-70 cm in length. Before putting dahlias, it is necessary to lay the box or box with paper, preferably wax or parchment, but not with synthetic film, sprinkle lightly inside with water, and then lay the dahlias “face” »Up, tightly to one another, in two or three rows, but not more. Top should be covered tightly with paper and covered with a lid. With such packaging, dahlias prepared for shipment can be stored in a cool place in the dark for up to 4-7 days.
Before putting the transported dahlias in water, they must be laid out in a cool place on paper freely in a row and sprinkled with cold water, then take a wide bowl of water, a sharp knife or secateurs and, lowering the end of the stem into the water, cut off the tip with a sharp by cut. After that, the flowers can be placed in a vase with clean water. If the water is chlorinated, before you put flowers in it, you need to hold it for 30 minutes in an open container so that chlorine evaporates. The water in the vase where the flowers stand must be changed daily, and if it is very hot, it is advisable to add ice cubes to it or change the water in the vase two to three times a day.
When changing water once every two to three days, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse the vase from the inside, wash the flower stalks and refresh the cuts, cutting the ends in the water.
The implementation of these rules will provide longer periods of preservation by dahlias of decorativeness.
Author: N.A. Bazilevskaya.