Lungwort, let's be treated
The name comes from the Latin word ‘pulmo’ - easy. In ancient times, the leaves of these plants were used in the treatment of pulmonary diseases.
The genus has 15 species. All Lungworms grow on the Eurasian continent and are confined to deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests.
Lungwort (lat.Pulmonária) - a genus of low perennial herbaceous plants of the Boraginaceae family. The genus includes 14-16 Eurasian species.
In most species of Lungwort (like some other borage moths), the phenomenon of discoloration of the corolla, infrequent among flowering plants, is observed during flowering: pink at the beginning, towards the end of flowering, the corollas turn blue.
Lungwort - especially Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis) - has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. Some species are cultivated as garden plants, many decorative varieties are bred..
All types of Lungwort are good honey bees.
The scientific generic name Pulmonaria comes from the Latin pulmo - “lung” (pulmonalis - “pulmonary”) and is associated with the use of plants of this genus for the treatment of pulmonary diseases.
The Russian name of the genus, used in scientific and popular science literature - the Lungwort - coincides with the traditional Russian name of the genus and is associated with the honey properties of the genus: the flowers of the plant contain a lot of nectar, in addition, this is one of the earliest honey plants. Sometimes there are other Russian names of the genus or its individual species: “pulmonary” (according to the transliteration of the scientific name), “lungworm” and “pulmonary grass” (both as a folk name for those species that were used for medicinal purposes, and as a translation of the scientific name ), “Medunika”, “medunka”.
Like some other plants that bloom very early, right after the snow melts, the lunatic is called “snowdrop” in some regions of Russia.
All species of Lungwort are confined to the temperate zone of Eurasia, while most species are from Central and Eastern Europe. The broadest range is found in the soft boletus (Pulmonaria mollis): this plant is distributed from Western Europe to Asia Minor and Eastern Siberia.
Location: in a semi-shaded or shaded, cool place. The plant does not tolerate heat, relatively hygrophilous. For species such as m. Gross, m. Medicinal and m. Red, it is necessary to allocate more space - they tend to “creep out”.
The soil: plants prefer sandy loam or loamy, alkaline or slightly acidic, loose soils containing humus. Lungwort narrow-leaved grows well on poor sandy soils.
Care: water in dry weather. Apply humus regularly. For the season, they feed 1 time in the middle of summer, during the period of intensive growth of new leaves, with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer (15-20 g per 10 l), spending this amount per 1 m2. If necessary, chop off the overgrown shoots with a shovel. In preparation for winter, varieties and hybrids of m. Gross and m. Soft, it is advisable to cover with a sheet. Before winter, it is advisable to mulch all types of peat. In the Lungwort narrow-leaved, foliage cannot be cut off.
Propagation by division of the bush and seeds. Lungwort is the mildest especially propagated by freshly picked seeds. Seedlings dive at a distance of 5-8 cm from each other. All species breed at the end of summer in segments of rhizomes with a bud of renewal. Landing is carried out to a depth of 2 - 4 cm, planted at a distance of 15-20 cm.
Use in groups, mixborders and rocky areas. Leaves do not lose their decorative effect for a long time, which makes them valuable for borders. Lungworms are undeservedly rarely grown in gardens, although these bright, pre-flowering, with beautiful foliage, creating a decorative cover plants should find their place in the infield. Lungwort and Lungwort narrow-leaved can be recommended as groundcover for shaded areas, and the softest lungwort will decorate flower beds both in the shade and in more open areas of the garden.
Diseases and pests: in cold, humid years, the red parsnip is damaged by powdery mildew.
In floriculture, the most elegant types of Lungwort are most often used. Working with them, breeders have achieved tremendous success. Consider these some types and varieties.
Lungwort sugar (Pulmonária saccharata) naturally grows in the forests of France and Italy, forming large carpets.
Evergreen sugar parsnip has large oval leaves (up to 27 cm long, up to 10 cm wide. The dull green surface of the leaf is completely covered with silver spots, as if powdered with hoarfrost.
Funnel-shaped flowers from pink gradually turn into blue. Flowers are placed at the end of a straight, leaf-covered stem.
The best variety of sugar medunits is Pulmonária argentea, or Pulmonária argentifolia. From this species received many varieties:
- "Cambridge Blue" - with blue inflorescences;
- "Sissinghurst Wite" - with pink buds that open with white inflorescences; it is a large variety with a height of 30 cm and a diameter of 45-60 cm;
- "Mrs. Moon ”- with red-violet flowers and graceful leaves;
- "Dora Barnsfeld" - with light pink flowers, is very fast growing;
- “Argentea Group” - with abundant spots on the leaves, which makes them appear almost completely silver, and red buds reveal flowers of a deep dark purple color;
- “Silverado” - on the leaves a large central part is silver, the edge of the leaf with a peculiar green border; on one plant you can see white, blue and pink flowers.
Foreign nurseries also offer other spectacular varieties of sugar medunica: Bowles Red, Janet Fisk, Margery Fish.
Lungworm unclear (Pulmonária obccura) - The most common species in central Russia. It has wide, heart-shaped leaves without spots, green.
Lungworm is not very beautiful during flowering. The flowers are usually lilac, but sometimes there are specimens with white flowers (P. albiflora form) and with purple flowers. So far, breeders have overlooked this relatively modest kind of lunatic.
Lungwort officinalis (Pulmonária officinalis) outwardly similar to an unclear lungwort, but its leaves are decorated with bright spots. This species grows from Western Europe to Siberia; it prefers soils rich in humus.
The leaves of the medicinal Lungwort are regular. Basal leaves are heart-ovate, on long petioles, develop after flowering; stem - oblong.
Medunica officinalis blooms in early May, covered with pink inflorescences. As they bloom, the corollas of the flowers become purple.
Lungwort medicinal has been grown in culture for several centuries. Its forms are known both with white flowers and with leaves without spots (var. Imnaculata).
In the nurseries you can find elegant varieties of medunica officinalis:
- "Cambridge Blue" - with pale blue flowers
- "Coral" - with pale pink flowers
- Sissinghurst Wtite - with white flowers
Both the medunica is unclear and the medicinal medunica are used in folk medicine as medicinal plants.
Lunatic fowl (Pulmonária filarszkyana) - a rare decorative appearance in nature. This long-rhizome plant from the Carpathian forests feels great in the garden; bush height 25-30 cm. But this species has a drawback: in cold and rainy summer bushes can be damaged by powdery mildew.
In culture, the Filyarsky Lungwort actively grows, forming a dense light green cover of shiny leaves. From early May, it blooms with bright red flowers and continues to bloom profusely until early June.
The listed species of Lungwort is only a small part of the decorative species that adorn our gardens.
© Joan Simon
The plant is widely used in folk medicine. Due to the content of various trace elements, primarily manganese, the infusion from the grass regulates the activity of the endocrine glands, enhances the formation of blood, and stops bleeding. Lungwort has anti-inflammatory and astringent properties due to the presence of tannins in it, emollients (due to the presence of mucous substances), antiseptic and wound healing effects. Infusion is one of the best remedies for any lung disease, hoarseness, in the treatment of laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, cough, tuberculosis, bleeding from the lungs and gastrointestinal, dysentery, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, anemia, and purulent wounds, ulcers, abscesses, like a diuretic for inflammation of the kidneys, bloody urine, kidney stones and bladder.
Lungwort juice is used instead of iodine for injuries. Shredded leaves are applied to purulent wounds for faster healing.
To prepare the infusion, 1.5-2 tablespoons of chopped dried herbs are poured with 2 cups of boiling water, insisted for 2 hours and filtered. Take 1/2 cup 3 times a day for 20-30 minutes before eating. Outwardly (for lotions, washes, baths, rinses), a more concentrated infusion is used (4 tablespoons of grass for 2 cups of boiling water).
Side effects are excluded even with prolonged use. The duration of treatment with a medunica depends on the severity of the disease. In the treatment of pulmonary diseases, the Lungwort is recommended to be used together with herbs and infusions that strengthen immunity, such as purple coneflower, black elderberry syrup, various herbs, which can include licorice, thyme, rosehip, amaranth, strawberries, needles, currants, clover, acacia .